+1 (704) 266-3234

Global Roofing Underlying Materials Market Professional Survey Report 2018

Published on: Jun 2018 | From USD $3500 | Published By: QY RESEARCH | Number Of Pages: 123

This report studies Roofing Underlying Materials in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2013 to 2018, and forecast to 2025.

This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering
GAF
DuPont
Carlisle
Soprema Group
Renolit
Sika
CertainTeed
Oriental Yuhong
Owens Corning
TehnoNICOL
Atlas Roofing
Hongyuan Waterproof
Fosroc
CKS
Joaboa Technology
TAMKO Building Products
Bauder
Jianguo Weiye Waterproof
Hangzhou Jinwu
Yuhong Waterproof
Polyglass
Yuwang Group
IKO Industries

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Asphalt-Saturated Felt Roofing Underlying
Modified Asphalt Roofing Underlying
Non-bitumen Synthetic Roofing Underlying

By Application, the market can be split into
Residential
Non-Residential

By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want)
North America
China
Europe
Southeast Asia
Japan
India

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

Table of Contents

Global Roofing Underlying Materials Market Professional Survey Report 2018
1 Industry Overview of Roofing Underlying Materials
1.1 Definition and Specifications of Roofing Underlying Materials
1.1.1 Definition of Roofing Underlying Materials
1.1.2 Specifications of Roofing Underlying Materials
1.2 Classification of Roofing Underlying Materials
1.2.1 Asphalt-Saturated Felt Roofing Underlying
1.2.2 Modified Asphalt Roofing Underlying
1.2.3 Non-bitumen Synthetic Roofing Underlying
1.3 Applications of Roofing Underlying Materials
1.3.1 Residential
1.3.2 Non-Residential
1.3.3 Application 3
1.4 Market Segment by Regions
1.4.1 North America
1.4.2 China
1.4.3 Europe
1.4.4 Southeast Asia
1.4.5 Japan
1.4.6 India

2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Roofing Underlying Materials
2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers
2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Roofing Underlying Materials
2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Roofing Underlying Materials
2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Roofing Underlying Materials

3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Roofing Underlying Materials
3.1 Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Roofing Underlying Materials Major Manufacturers in 2017
3.2 Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Roofing Underlying Materials Major Manufacturers in 2017
3.3 R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Roofing Underlying Materials Major Manufacturers in 2017
3.4 Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Roofing Underlying Materials Major Manufacturers in 2017

4 Global Roofing Underlying Materials Overall Market Overview
4.1 2013-2018E Overall Market Analysis
4.2 Capacity Analysis
4.2.1 2013-2018E Global Roofing Underlying Materials Capacity and Growth Rate Analysis
4.2.2 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Capacity Analysis (Company Segment)
4.3 Sales Analysis
4.3.1 2013-2018E Global Roofing Underlying Materials Sales and Growth Rate Analysis
4.3.2 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Analysis (Company Segment)
4.4 Sales Price Analysis
4.4.1 2013-2018E Global Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price
4.4.2 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment)

5 Roofing Underlying Materials Regional Market Analysis
5.1 North America Roofing Underlying Materials Market Analysis
5.1.1 North America Roofing Underlying Materials Market Overview
5.1.2 North America 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.1.3 North America 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price Analysis
5.1.4 North America 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Share Analysis
5.2 China Roofing Underlying Materials Market Analysis
5.2.1 China Roofing Underlying Materials Market Overview
5.2.2 China 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.2.3 China 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price Analysis
5.2.4 China 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Share Analysis
5.3 Europe Roofing Underlying Materials Market Analysis
5.3.1 Europe Roofing Underlying Materials Market Overview
5.3.2 Europe 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.3.3 Europe 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price Analysis
5.3.4 Europe 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Share Analysis
5.4 Southeast Asia Roofing Underlying Materials Market Analysis
5.4.1 Southeast Asia Roofing Underlying Materials Market Overview
5.4.2 Southeast Asia 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.4.3 Southeast Asia 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price Analysis
5.4.4 Southeast Asia 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Share Analysis
5.5 Japan Roofing Underlying Materials Market Analysis
5.5.1 Japan Roofing Underlying Materials Market Overview
5.5.2 Japan 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.5.3 Japan 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price Analysis
5.5.4 Japan 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Share Analysis
5.6 India Roofing Underlying Materials Market Analysis
5.6.1 India Roofing Underlying Materials Market Overview
5.6.2 India 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
5.6.3 India 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price Analysis
5.6.4 India 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Share Analysis

6 Global 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Segment Market Analysis (by Type)
6.1 Global 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales by Type
6.2 Different Types of Roofing Underlying Materials Product Interview Price Analysis
6.3 Different Types of Roofing Underlying Materials Product Driving Factors Analysis
6.3.1 Asphalt-Saturated Felt Roofing Underlying of Roofing Underlying Materials Growth Driving Factor Analysis
6.3.2 Modified Asphalt Roofing Underlying of Roofing Underlying Materials Growth Driving Factor Analysis
6.3.3 Non-bitumen Synthetic Roofing Underlying of Roofing Underlying Materials Growth Driving Factor Analysis

7 Global 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Segment Market Analysis (by Application)
7.1 Global 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption by Application
7.2 Different Application of Roofing Underlying Materials Product Interview Price Analysis
7.3 Different Application of Roofing Underlying Materials Product Driving Factors Analysis
7.3.1 Residential of Roofing Underlying Materials Growth Driving Factor Analysis
7.3.2 Non-Residential of Roofing Underlying Materials Growth Driving Factor Analysis

8 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Roofing Underlying Materials
8.1 GAF
8.1.1 Company Profile
8.1.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.1.2.1 Product A
8.1.2.2 Product B
8.1.3 GAF 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.1.4 GAF 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.2 DuPont
8.2.1 Company Profile
8.2.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.2.2.1 Product A
8.2.2.2 Product B
8.2.3 DuPont 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.2.4 DuPont 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.3 Carlisle
8.3.1 Company Profile
8.3.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.3.2.1 Product A
8.3.2.2 Product B
8.3.3 Carlisle 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.3.4 Carlisle 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.4 Soprema Group
8.4.1 Company Profile
8.4.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.4.2.1 Product A
8.4.2.2 Product B
8.4.3 Soprema Group 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.4.4 Soprema Group 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.5 Renolit
8.5.1 Company Profile
8.5.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.5.2.1 Product A
8.5.2.2 Product B
8.5.3 Renolit 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.5.4 Renolit 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.6 Sika
8.6.1 Company Profile
8.6.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.6.2.1 Product A
8.6.2.2 Product B
8.6.3 Sika 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.6.4 Sika 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.7 CertainTeed
8.7.1 Company Profile
8.7.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.7.2.1 Product A
8.7.2.2 Product B
8.7.3 CertainTeed 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.7.4 CertainTeed 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.8 Oriental Yuhong
8.8.1 Company Profile
8.8.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.8.2.1 Product A
8.8.2.2 Product B
8.8.3 Oriental Yuhong 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.8.4 Oriental Yuhong 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.9 Owens Corning
8.9.1 Company Profile
8.9.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.9.2.1 Product A
8.9.2.2 Product B
8.9.3 Owens Corning 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.9.4 Owens Corning 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.10 TehnoNICOL
8.10.1 Company Profile
8.10.2 Product Picture and Specifications
8.10.2.1 Product A
8.10.2.2 Product B
8.10.3 TehnoNICOL 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
8.10.4 TehnoNICOL 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution Analysis
8.11 Atlas Roofing
8.12 Hongyuan Waterproof
8.13 Fosroc
8.14 CKS
8.15 Joaboa Technology
8.16 TAMKO Building Products
8.17 Bauder
8.18 Jianguo Weiye Waterproof
8.19 Hangzhou Jinwu
8.20 Yuhong Waterproof
8.21 Polyglass
8.22 Yuwang Group
8.23 IKO Industries

9 Development Trend of Analysis of Roofing Underlying Materials Market
9.1 Global Roofing Underlying Materials Market Trend Analysis
9.1.1 Global 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Volume and Value) Forecast
9.1.2 Global 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price Forecast
9.2 Roofing Underlying Materials Regional Market Trend
9.2.1 North America 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Forecast
9.2.2 China 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Forecast
9.2.3 Europe 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Forecast
9.2.4 Southeast Asia 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Forecast
9.2.5 Japan 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Forecast
9.2.6 India 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Forecast
9.3 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Trend (Product Type)
9.4 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Trend (Application)

10 Roofing Underlying Materials Marketing Type Analysis
10.1 Roofing Underlying Materials Regional Marketing Type Analysis
10.2 Roofing Underlying Materials International Trade Type Analysis
10.3 Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Roofing Underlying Materials by Region
10.4 Roofing Underlying Materials Supply Chain Analysis

11 Consumers Analysis of Roofing Underlying Materials
11.1 Consumer 1 Analysis
11.2 Consumer 2 Analysis
11.3 Consumer 3 Analysis
11.4 Consumer 4 Analysis

12 Conclusion of the Global Roofing Underlying Materials Market Professional Survey Report 2017
Methodology
Analyst Introduction
Data Source


List of Tables and Figures
Figure Picture of Roofing Underlying Materials
Table Product Specifications of Roofing Underlying Materials
Table Classification of Roofing Underlying Materials
Figure Global Production Market Share of Roofing Underlying Materials by Type in 2017
Figure Asphalt-Saturated Felt Roofing Underlying Picture
Table Major Manufacturers of Asphalt-Saturated Felt Roofing Underlying
Figure Modified Asphalt Roofing Underlying Picture
Table Major Manufacturers of Modified Asphalt Roofing Underlying
Figure Non-bitumen Synthetic Roofing Underlying Picture
Table Major Manufacturers of Non-bitumen Synthetic Roofing Underlying
Table Applications of Roofing Underlying Materials
Figure Global Consumption Volume Market Share of Roofing Underlying Materials by Application in 2017
Figure Residential Examples
Table Major Consumers in Residential
Figure Non-Residential Examples
Table Major Consumers in Non-Residential
Figure Market Share of Roofing Underlying Materials by Regions
Figure North America Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Million USD) (2013-2025)
Figure China Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Million USD) (2013-2025)
Figure Europe Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Million USD) (2013-2025)
Figure Southeast Asia Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Million USD) (2013-2025)
Figure Japan Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Million USD) (2013-2025)
Figure India Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Million USD) (2013-2025)
Table Roofing Underlying Materials Raw Material and Suppliers
Table Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Roofing Underlying Materials in 2017
Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Roofing Underlying Materials
Figure Industry Chain Structure of Roofing Underlying Materials
Table Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Roofing Underlying Materials Major Manufacturers in 2017
Table Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Roofing Underlying Materials Major Manufacturers in 2017
Table R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Roofing Underlying Materials Major Manufacturers in 2017
Table Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Roofing Underlying Materials Major Manufacturers in 2017
Table Global Capacity, Sales , Price, Cost, Sales Revenue (M USD) and Gross Margin of Roofing Underlying Materials 2013-2018E
Figure Global 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Volume) and Growth Rate
Figure Global 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Value) and Growth Rate
Table 2013-2018E Global Roofing Underlying Materials Capacity and Growth Rate
Table 2017 Global Roofing Underlying Materials Capacity (K Units) List (Company Segment)
Table 2013-2018E Global Roofing Underlying Materials Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate
Table 2017 Global Roofing Underlying Materials Sales (K Units) List (Company Segment)
Table 2013-2018E Global Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price (USD/Unit)
Table 2017 Global Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price (USD/Unit) List (Company Segment)
Figure North America Capacity Overview
Table North America Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Roofing Underlying Materials 2013-2018E
Figure North America 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price (USD/Unit)
Figure North America 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Market Share
Figure China Capacity Overview
Table China Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Roofing Underlying Materials 2013-2018E
Figure China 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price (USD/Unit)
Figure China 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Market Share
Figure Europe Capacity Overview
Table Europe Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Roofing Underlying Materials 2013-2018E
Figure Europe 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price (USD/Unit)
Figure Europe 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Market Share
Figure Southeast Asia Capacity Overview
Table Southeast Asia Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Roofing Underlying Materials 2013-2018E
Figure Southeast Asia 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price (USD/Unit)
Figure Southeast Asia 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Market Share
Figure Japan Capacity Overview
Table Japan Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Roofing Underlying Materials 2013-2018E
Figure Japan 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price (USD/Unit)
Figure Japan 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Market Share
Figure India Capacity Overview
Table India Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K Units) of Roofing Underlying Materials 2013-2018E
Figure India 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price (USD/Unit)
Figure India 2017 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Market Share
Table Global 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales (K Units) by Type
Table Different Types Roofing Underlying Materials Product Interview Price
Table Global 2013-2018E Roofing Underlying Materials Sales (K Units) by Application
Table Different Application Roofing Underlying Materials Product Interview Price
Table GAF Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2017 GAF Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 GAF Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table DuPont Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2017 DuPont Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 DuPont Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table Carlisle Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2015 Carlisle Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 Carlisle Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table Soprema Group Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2017 Soprema Group Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 Soprema Group Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table Renolit Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2017 Renolit Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 Renolit Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table Sika Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2017 Sika Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 Sika Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table CertainTeed Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2017 CertainTeed Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 CertainTeed Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table Oriental Yuhong Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2017 Oriental Yuhong Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 Oriental Yuhong Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table Owens Corning Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2017 Owens Corning Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 Owens Corning Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table TehnoNICOL Information List
Table Product A Overview
Table Product B Overview
Table 2017 TehnoNICOL Roofing Underlying Materials Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K Units), Ex-factory Price (USD/Unit)
Figure 2017 TehnoNICOL Roofing Underlying Materials Business Region Distribution
Table Atlas Roofing Information List
Table Hongyuan Waterproof Information List
Table Fosroc Information List
Table CKS Information List
Table Joaboa Technology Information List
Table TAMKO Building Products Information List
Table Bauder Information List
Table Jianguo Weiye Waterproof Information List
Table Hangzhou Jinwu Information List
Table Yuhong Waterproof Information List
Table Polyglass Information List
Table Yuwang Group Information List
Table IKO Industries Information List
Figure Global 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Global 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Global 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Sales Price (USD/Unit) Forecast
Figure North America 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure China 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Europe 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Southeast Asia 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure Japan 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
Figure India 2018-2025 Roofing Underlying Materials Consumption Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate Forecast
Table Global Sales Volume (K Units) of Roofing Underlying Materials by Type 2018-2025
Table Global Consumption Volume (K Units) of Roofing Underlying Materials by Application 2018-2025
Table Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Roofing Underlying Materials by Region

SECONDARY RESEARCH
Secondary Research Information is collected from a number of publicly available as well as paid databases. Public sources involve publications by different associations and governments, annual reports and statements of companies, white papers and research publications by recognized industry experts and renowned academia etc. Paid data sources include third party authentic industry databases.

PRIMARY RESEARCH
Once data collection is done through secondary research, primary interviews are conducted with different stakeholders across the value chain like manufacturers, distributors, ingredient/input suppliers, end customers and other key opinion leaders of the industry. Primary research is used both to validate the data points obtained from secondary research and to fill in the data gaps after secondary research.

MARKET ENGINEERING
The market engineering phase involves analyzing the data collected, market breakdown and forecasting. Macroeconomic indicators and bottom-up and top-down approaches are used to arrive at a complete set of data points that give way to valuable qualitative and quantitative insights. Each data point is verified by the process of data triangulation to validate the numbers and arrive at close estimates.

EXPERT VALIDATION
The market engineered data is verified and validated by a number of experts, both in-house and external.

REPORT WRITING/ PRESENTATION
After the data is curated by the mentioned highly sophisticated process, the analysts begin to write the report. Garnering insights from data and forecasts, insights are drawn to visualize the entire ecosystem in a single report.

Please Choose License Type

USD $3500
USD $4500
USD $7000
Offer

Why Us

  • Why Us In-depth database
    Our Report’s database covers almost all topics of all regions over the Globe..
  • Why Us Recognised publishing sources
    Tie ups with top publishers around the globe.
  • Why Us Customer Support
    Complete pre and post sales support.
  • Why Us Safe & Secure
    Complete secure payment process.